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Iraqi troops seized oil fields and the area around Kirkuk in response to last month’s Kurdish vote for independence.
Tensions have grown since the Kurds voted for independence from Iraq.
Knowledge about the early history of Kurdish women is limited by both the dearth of records and the near absence of research.
In 1597 (16th century), Sharaf ad-Din Bitlisi's wrote a book named Sharafnama, makes references to the women of the ruling landowning class, and their exclusion from public life and the exercise of state power, wrote that the Kurds of Ottoman Empire, who follow Islamic tradition, took four wives and, if they could afford it, four maids or slave girls.
Mestureh Ardalan (1805–1848) was a Kurdish poet and writer. European travelers sometimes noted the absence of veil, free association with males (such as strangers and guests), and female rulers.
In 1858, the Kurdish writer Mahmud Bayazidi mentioned the life of Kurdish women in tribal, nomadic and rural communities.
He noted that the majority of marriages were monogamous and Kurdish did not veil and they participated in social activities such as work, dancing and singing together with men.
After reports of clashes in and around the city, Kurdish forces -- known as the peshmerga – appeared to withdraw without much of a fight. Iraqi Prime Minister Haidar al-Abadi called on civil servants to remain at their posts to serve the city.
Still, thousands of people could be seen carrying their belongings and heading north to Iraq’s autonomous Kurdish region.
Al-Iraqiya, the Iraqi government TV network, reported that the prime minister ordered federal forces to “impose security in the city in cooperation with the inhabitants and the peshmerga.” Since the September independence vote, the Iraqi government has been pushing Kurdish leaders to accept shared administration of the oil-rich area.